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PAK Lithium Project

Frontier Lithium is committed to doing things right as we seek to develop the PAK Lithium Project into a lithium mine. Moving forward, our operations will integrate proven technology with the highest standards of health and safety, environmental conservation, and respect for Indigenous communities.


The PAK Lithium Project in northwest Ontario contains North America’s highest grade lithium resource and is the second largest in North America by size.

Lithium is relatively rare and is found in only few places in Canada. The mineral that contains lithium (called spodumene) discovered at Pakeagama Lake is the highest quality in North America, making it suitable for use in glass, ceramics, electric vehicle batteries and other everyday uses such as phones and medical equipment.

Many lithium deposits are small and run in narrow bands making them uneconomical to extract. The lithium deposits at Pakeagama Lake are big enough to support a mine that will make significant economic contributions to nearby communities, the province, and Canada.

Find out more about the Geology of the Deposits

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Key Milestones


The Strategy

Our goal is to become a vertically integrated operation, which means we will be involved in every stage of lithium production. When in full production the project will produce enough lithium concentrate that, when refined and placed into batteries, will enable the displacement of 545,454 gas-powered vehicles. This will result in the avoidance of green house gas emissions equaling 2,451,134 metric tonnes of CO2 annually.


Frontier Lithium's objective is to become a strategic supplier of battery-grade lithium hydroxide and lithium salts to the growing electric vehicle and energy storage markets in North America. Frontier will take a phased approach focusing on producing concentrate from the deposits at the PAK project.

Frontier Lithium's development timeline aims to complete engineering and design of the project through the definitive feasibility study in 2024, initiate construction with clearing and site preparation in 2025, and complete final permitting in 2026. The feasibility study will help us decide on the details for constructing a mine and mill at the project site. 

PAK Project

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Site Design

As we plan infrastructure for the mine, we will use the latest, viable technology to ensure efficient, sustainable operations and minimal environmental impact. 


Additionally, the design process will actively involve input from Indigenous communities, stakeholders and the public to respect and incorporate their perspectives.


Project infrastructure will exist at the PAK mine site (shown on the right)

  • The PAK site includes PAK open pit, Spark open pit, rock storage areas, concentrator plant complex, tailings management facility, electrical distribution, offices, camp, warehouse, maintenance, effluent treatment, and an airstrip. 


For details on mine site design footprint, download factsheet.

PAK Project Site


Pre-Feasibility Study

The Pre-Feasibility study, released in May 2023, confirms that the PAK Lithium Project could be the continent’s' highest quality, largest and lowest-cost producer of lithium hydroxide able to supply the rapidly growing electric vehicle industry in North America.​


Some highlights include:


  • The 2023 Mineral Reserve Estimate for the Project includes a substantial reserve of 22.1 megatonnes (Mt) of Probable Mineral Reserves grading 1.55% of lithium oxide (Li2O), which is considered a good quality for lithium deposits. The cut off-grade for lithium oxide is at 0.65% from the PAK and Spark Deposits; this suggests the operation is economically viable at current market conditions. 


  • Total initial capital expenditure estimates of US$468 million for the mine and mill with a contingency of 20% included. 

Download our PFS or visit our Investors Page.


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